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Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia, but the condition also affects language, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities. Dementia is often associated with aging, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of brain injuries, stroke, or certain neurological diseases. There is no cure for dementia, but there are ways to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life for those living with the condition.


  • Memory loss, especially forgetting recently learned information
  • Difficulty communicating or finding the right words
  • Difficulty with problem-solving or decision-making
  • Difficulty with planning or organizing
  • Difficulty with coordination and motor skills
  • Change in personality or behavior
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Difficulty understanding visual information
  • Difficulty with spatial relationships (e.g., judging distances)
  • Loss of motivation


  • Vascular dementia, which is caused by reduced blood flow to the brain due to stroke or other blood vessel problems
  • Dementia with Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurological disorder that affects movement
  • Dementia with HIV/AIDS, which can be caused by the HIV virus itself or the medications used to treat it
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Frontotemporal dementia, which affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a rare, degenerative brain disorder
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus, a buildup of fluid in the brain
  • Lewy body dementia, which is caused by abnormal protein deposits in the brain

Risk factors

  • Age: The risk of developing dementia increases with age, especially after age 65
  • Family history: Your risk of developing dementia is higher if a parent or sibling has the condition
  • Cardiovascular health: Chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes can increase the risk of dementia
  • Head injury: Traumatic brain injuries, especially those that result in a loss of consciousness, can increase the risk of dementia
  • Smoking: Research has shown that smokers are at increased risk of developing dementia
  • Alcohol abuse: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of dementia
  • Lack of mental and physical activity: Staying mentally and physically active may help reduce the risk of developing dementia.


How to diagnose

If you are experiencing symptoms of dementia or are concerned about your cognitive abilities, it's important to see a doctor. Here's what you can expect during the diagnostic process:

It's important to note that there is no single test that can diagnose dementia, so your doctor may need to use a combination of methods to make a diagnosis.

How to prevent

When you need to see a doctor

It's important to see a doctor if you are experiencing any symptoms of dementia, such as memory loss, difficulty with communication, or changes in your behaviour or personality. It's also a good idea to see a doctor if you are concerned about your cognitive abilities or if you have a family history of dementia.

Early diagnosis of dementia is important because it can allow you to receive treatment and support as soon as possible. If you are caring for someone with dementia, it's important to be aware of any changes in their condition and to see a doctor if you have any concerns.


In most cases, dementia is not reversible. However, certain conditions that can cause dementia, such as a vitamin deficiency or a treatable infection, may be reversible if they are caught early.

There is no cure for dementia, but there are medications and other treatments that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life for those living with the condition.

The rate of progression can vary from person to person, but in general, dementia tends to progress gradually over time. In the early stages, people with dementia may have difficulty with memory and decision-making, but they can still carry out most daily activities. As the condition progresses, they may need more help with daily activities and may become more reliant on caregivers. In the later stages, people with dementia may need full-time care and may be unable to communicate or recognize loved ones.

As the condition progresses, people with dementia may have difficulty with communication. They may struggle to find the right words or may repeat themselves. It's important to be patient and to use simple language and gestures to communicate. Using visual aids, such as pictures or written notes, can also be helpful.

Visit a doctor when you are suffering from dementia!