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Multiple sclerosis


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological condition that affects the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. In the case of MS, the immune system attacks the myelin, a protective sheath that surrounds nerve fibres in the CNS. This damage to the myelin disrupts communication between the brain and the rest of the body, leading to the various symptoms of MS.



Risk factors


How to diagnose it?

Diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) can be challenging because the condition has a variety of symptoms and no single test that can definitively diagnose it. The process of diagnosing MS often involves a combination of the following steps:

The healthcare provider will first take a thorough medical history and perform a physical examination to assess the person's overall health and identify any symptoms that may be related to MS. The provider will also perform a neurological examination, which involves a series of tests to evaluate the person's neurological function, such as checking vision, reflexes, and muscle strength.

To help confirm a diagnosis of MS, the healthcare provider may order laboratory tests, such as blood tests, to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms. The provider may also recommend imaging tests, such as an MRI, to help visualise any abnormalities in the brain and spinal cord that may be characteristic of MS. In addition, evoked potential tests may be used to measure the speed of nerve signals as they travel to the brain, and a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) may be performed to test the cerebrospinal fluid for certain proteins that may be indicative of MS.

It is important to note that no single test can confirm a diagnosis of MS. The diagnosis is typically made based on a combination of the person's symptoms, the results of the above tests, and the pattern of the disease's progression.

How to prevent it?

When do you need to see a doctor?

If you are experiencing any symptoms that you suspect may be related to multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to see a doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment. Some common symptoms of MS include fatigue, difficulty with balance and coordination, numbness or tingling in the limbs, muscle spasms and weakness, vision problems, dizziness, and bladder and bowel problems. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, or any other symptoms that are unusual for you or that are causing you concern, it is a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider.


There is currently no cure for MS, but there are a number of treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include medications to reduce the frequency and severity of attacks, physical therapy to help with mobility, and assistive devices to help with daily activities.

The life expectancy for people with multiple sclerosis is 5 to 10 years, on an average and this gap seems to become smaller all the time.

Visit a doctor when you are suffering from multiple sclerosis!