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Peripheral Artery and Vein Disease


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition in which the arteries that carry blood to the limbs (typically the legs) become narrowed or blocked as a result of plaque buildup. This can cause a reduction in blood flow, leading to symptoms such as pain, cramping, and fatigue in the affected limb. PAD is often caused by the same factors that contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (e.g., high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking), and it can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.


  • Painful cramping in the hips, thighs, or calf muscles after physical activity, such as walking or climbing stairs (this is called "claudication")
  • Leg numbness or weakness
  • Coldness in the lower leg or foot, compared to the other side of the body
  • Sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs that are slow to heal
  • A change in the colour of the skin on the legs
  • A loss of hair on the legs
  • Shiny skin on the legs
  • Slower growth of toenails or loss of toenails
  • Erectile dysfunction in men


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by a narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the arms and legs. This narrowing is often due to a buildup of plaque, which is a combination of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the blood. PAD is most commonly found in the arteries of the legs, but it can also occur in the arteries of the arms, head, and abdomen. Risk factors for PAD include smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, age (PAD is more common in people over the age of 50), and a family history of PAD or heart disease.

Peripheral vein disease (PVD) is caused by a problem with the veins in the legs, which can lead to poor circulation and a build-up of fluid in the legs. PVD can be caused by a variety of factors, including varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot in the leg), injuries to the veins, surgery on the veins, pregnancy, and being overweight or obese.

Risk Factors


How to diagnose?

There are several tests that can be used to diagnose peripheral artery disease (PAD) and peripheral vein disease (PVD). These tests may include:

If you are experiencing symptoms of PAD or PVD, it is important to see a doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment.

How to prevent it?

When you need to see a doctor

It is important to see a doctor if you are experiencing any symptoms of peripheral artery disease (PAD) or peripheral vein disease (PVD). PAD and PVD can both be serious conditions that can lead to complications if left untreated. Your doctor will be able to recommend the best course of treatment based on the severity of your condition and your overall health.


PAD is a condition that occurs when the arteries that carry blood to the arms and legs become narrowed or blocked. PVD is a condition that occurs when the veins in the legs become damaged or blocked, leading to poor circulation and a build-up of fluid in the legs.

PAD disease life expectancy is difficult to determine though one in five people with PAD suffer from a heart attack, stroke or death within five years, if not treated on time.

Visit a doctor when you are suffering from heart problems!